A Responsible Europe?: Ethical Foundations of EU External Affairs

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Despite the fact that historic ties between the two nations have been coldly dormant, relations between Canada and Mexico have positively changed in recent years; seeing as both countries brokered the North American Free Trade Agreement.

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Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage , conflict during the early years of the U. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of , which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies.

A high volume of trade and migration between the U. Canada and the United States are currently the world's largest trading partners, share the world's longest shared border , [77] and have significant interoperability within the defense sphere. In February there was a Canadian consulate-general in Caracas and a Venezuelan consulate-general in Montreal.

Foreign relations of Canada

In that year the Venezuelan Consul General, on behalf of the government of Venezuela, made a rapprochement with Canada in order to open direct diplomatic representations between the two countries; [78] but the Canadian government delayed the opening of a diplomatic mission in Venezuela because of the lack of enough suitable personnel to staff a Canadian mission in Venezuela and the impossibility of Canada beginning a representation in Venezuela in that year without considering a policy of expansion of Canadian representation abroad.

In the interest of protecting Canadian trade with Venezuela and considering the difficulties for business in being without a Canadian representation in Caracas, Canada was pushed to accept the Venezuelan offer of exchanging diplomatic missions. Venezuela established an embassy in Canada in In June , Canada closed its embassy in Caracas due to diplomatic visas unable to be renewed under President Maduro's government.

The Canadian government announced in February that it was adding Afghanistan to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid. Since , China has emerged as Canada's second largest trading partner, passing Britain and Japan. China now accounts for approximately six percent of Canada's total world trade. Between and , exports to China grew by percent, but only represented about 1.


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Between and , imports from China grew by almost percent. Trade tariffs and other incidents in , including the arrest of top Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou [86] have frozen relations between the two countries. Canadian-Iranian relations date back to , up to which point the Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran was handled by the British Embassy. A Canadian diplomatic mission was constructed in Tehran in and raised to embassy status in Due to rocky relations after the Iranian Revolution , Iran did not establish an embassy in Canada until when its staff, which had been living in a building on Roosevelt Avenue in Ottawa's west end, moved into Metcalfe Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa which was upgraded to embassy status, however in Canada severed all diplomatic ties with Iran in regard to Iran's treatment of human rights.

At the United Nations in , Canada was one of the thirty-three countries that voted in favour of the creation of a Jewish homeland. Canada delayed granting de facto recognition to Israel until December , and finally gave full de jure recognition to the new nation on 11 May , only after it was admitted into the United Nations UN. A week later, Avraham Harman became Israel's first consul general in Canada.

The two countries enjoy an amicable companionship in many areas; diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa.

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In , Canada opened its Tokyo legation, the first in Asia; [92] and in that same year, Japan its Ottawa consulate to legation form. Canada established diplomatic relations with Lebanon in , when Canada deployed "Envoy Extraordinaire" to Beirut. In , Canada sent its first ambassador.

The embassy was closed in and reopened in January Lebanon opened a consulate in Ottawa in A consulate-general replaced the consulate in , and it was upgraded to full embassy status in Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in , ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in When Mongolia formed a democratic government in after the collapse of the Soviet Union , Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre , Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.

Canada and North Korea share very little trade due to the destabilizing element North Korea has caused in the Asia Pacific region. The recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Canadian parliament has soured relations between the two countries. Turkey is Canada's 34th largest trade partner.

Canadian bilateral political relations with Cyprus stemmed initially from Cypriot Commonwealth membership at independence in that had followed a guerrilla struggle with Britain. The participation lasted for the next 29 years, during which 50, Canadian soldiers served and 28 were killed. In large measure Canadian relations with Cyprus continue to revolve around support for the ongoing efforts of the UN, G8 and others to resolve the island's divided status. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada.

He said that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family. Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territoriality established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See—Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in the s. Canada and Ireland enjoy friendly relations, the importance of these relations centres on the history of Irish migration to Canada.

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Canada recognized Kosovo on 18 March Canada and Russia benefit from extensive cooperation on trade and investment, energy, democratic development and governance, security and counter-terrorism, northern issues, and cultural and academic exchanges. Both countries have strong commitments to peacekeeping, UN reform, development assistance, environmental protection, sustainable development, and the promotion and protection of human rights.

Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on 27 January Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in [] [] and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in The main bilateral agreement signed between the two governments is the joint declaration of the "Special Partnership" between the two countries signed in and renewed in London and Ottawa enjoy cooperative and intimate contact, which has grown deeper over the years; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations , and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.

New Zealand and Canada have a longstanding relationship that has been fostered by both countries' shared history and culture, by their membership the Commonwealth of Nations and links between residents of both countries. New Zealand and Canada also have links through business or trade relations, the United Nations, the Commonwealth and mutual treaty agreements. New Zealand-Canada relations are important to both countries.

One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy has been in relations with communist governments. Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China 13 October long before the Americans did 1 January It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba , despite pressures from the United States. Canadian Government guidance for export controls on weapons systems is published by Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.

Canada is and has been a strong supporter of multilateralism. The country is one of the world's leading peacekeepers , sending soldiers under the U. Pearson , is credited for his contributions to modern international peacekeeping, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize in In the last century Canada has made efforts to reach out to the rest of the world and promoting itself as a " middle power " able to work with large and small nations alike.

This was demonstrated during the Suez Crisis when Lester B. Pearson mollified the tension by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts. Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the Invasion of Iraq , but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War , Afghanistan and Libya.

Despite Canada's track record as a liberal democracy that has embraced the values of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Canada has not been involved in any major plan for Reform of the United Nations Security Council ; although the Canadian government does support UN reform, in order to strengthen UN efficiency and effectiveness. Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City.


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Canada is working on setting up military bases around the world, while reducing aid and diplomatic efforts. However, by invoking the "three Ds" defense, diplomacy, and development as the fundamental basis for Canadian foreign policy, and then implementing this in a manner that conforms more to military security and trade interests, Canada has successfully distanced itself from the humanitarian objectives of foreign aid, with the human security goal far from being achieved.

Many Caribbean Community countries turn to Canada as a valued partner. At various times, several Caribbean countries have also considered joining Canadian Confederation as new provinces or territories , although no Caribbean nation has implemented such a proposal. Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms , with which Canada has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth. In recent years Canadian leaders have taken increasing interest in Latin America.

Canada has an ongoing trade dispute with Brazil. Canada is a member of the following organizations: []. Canada and the United States have negotiated the boundary between the countries over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise, Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon , but accepted a International Court of Arbitration ruling.

A long-simmering dispute between Canada and the U. Canadians were incensed when Americans drove the reinforced oil tanker Manhattan through the Northwest Passage in , followed by the icebreaker Polar Sea in , both without asking for Canadian permission.

A Responsible Europe? - Ethical Foundations of EU External Affairs | H. Mayer | Palgrave Macmillan

In response, the Americans in stated, "We cannot accept the assertion of a Canadian claim that the Arctic waters are internal waters of Canada Such acceptance would jeopardize the freedom of navigation essential for United States naval activities worldwide. Essentially, the Americans agreed to ask for the consent of the Government of Canada without conceding that they were obliged to. In January , David Wilkins, the American ambassador to Canada, said his government opposes Stephen Harper's proposed plan to deploy military icebreakers in the Arctic to detect interlopers and assert Canadian sovereignty over those waters.

Also, there is a dispute with Denmark over the sovereignty of the uninhabited Hans Island and surrounding waters in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland. Along with other nations in the Arctic Council , Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Russia, the maritime boundaries in the far north will be decided after countries have completed their submissions, due in Russia has made an extensive claim based on the Russian position that everything that is an extension of the Lomonosov Ridge should be assigned to Russia.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Crown. Executive Queen-in-Council. Legislative Queen-in-Parliament. Judicial Queen-on-the-Bench. Federal electoral districts Federal electoral system List of federal elections Provincial electoral districts Politics of the provinces. Local government. Municipal government. Foreign relations.

Related topics. Other countries Atlas. Main article: History of Canada. Main article: List of Canadian peacekeeping missions. Main article: Canadian Arms trade.

A Responsible Europe?

Main article: Asia—Canada relations. Main article: Canada—Caribbean relations. Main articles: Canada—European Union relations and Transatlantic relations.