Construction of buildings
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This section presents data on employee earnings and weekly hours. The latest industry averages of hourly earnings and weekly hours are shown. In addition, recent hourly and annual earnings are shown for occupations commonly found in construction of buildings. This section presents data for the industry on the number of workplace fatalities and the rates of workplace injuries and illnesses per full-time workers in construction of buildings.
An injury or illness is considered to be work-related if an event or exposure in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre-existing condition. Blank cells indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. Cases involving days away from work, job restriction, or transfer. Cases involving days of job transfer or restriction. Source: Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities. Source: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.
Adobe constructions are also found to be one to three storied and houses with more heights were found to be affected more than the single storied adobe houses. The primary damage mechanism was observed as complete collapse, gable collapse Fig.
As recent construction technology seldom follows adobe construction system in Nepal, almost all structures were of old to very old age and also those structures sustained minor damage during Udaypur earthquake. The Gorkha earthquake of 25 April reflected the performance of various types of buildings. After field reconnaissance in around buildings of various types, many types of construction as well as structural deficiencies were identified.
The RC, URM, rubble stone construction and adobe construction were found to be the dominant construction systems of Nepal. The majority fraction of damage is found to be consisted by URM, rubble stone and adobe buildings of central and eastern Nepal. Moreover, RC damage is found to be localized so many reasons except structural and construction deficiencies like liquefaction, local site effects, ground amplification, among others may have contributed in building damage. The common types of failures in RC construction were identified as the soft storey, pounding, shear failure, and other failures associated with construction as well as structural deficiencies like building symmetry, detailing and others.
Moreover, for URM constructions, the structural integrity, heavy load accumulation, age, lack of bracing and pounding were the major cause of complete collapse or out of plane failure. Similarly, binding and structural integrity, lack of tying members, heavy gable and roof construction were the leading cause of damage in random rubble construction and adobe constructions.
Codes and design manuals
All the damage was noticeably concentrated into non-engineered or pre-engineered buildings with major flaws in construction or structural components so it could be inferred that engineered constructions should be plausible solution for seismically active regions like Nepal. The wooden framed houses were the most survived structures that performed very well during Gorkha earthquake and this paradigm was well reflected during Bihar-Nepal and Udaypur earthquake as well [ 4 , 11 ]. It is imperative to understand and implement that, after every earthquake in Nepal, the existing structures are nevertheless strengthened thus the survivors in following earthquakes constitute largest fraction of damage [ 4 , 5 ].
Proper site selection, geotechnical observations and site specific design spectra and by-laws could enhance the structural performance as suggested by the localized damage scenario in Nepal after Gorkha earthquake. Moreover, the limiting age for use of structure should be clearly demarcated with routine strengthening techniques. Due to lack of proper implementation of by-laws, MRT and other buildings codes along with poor construction monitoring mechanism, many structures in urban areas are found to be haphazardly constructed and piled up, such structures have enhanced the vulnerability, so it is direly needed to reframe the construction monitoring mechanism along with monitoring of ongoing changes in structures in terms of non-structural members.
Construction and Building Materials
The common construction practice was found to be more adhered towards strong beam and weak column framework for owner built constructions in Nepal, so it would be crucial to enforce the building codes, ductile detailing and proper development length as well as anchorage strategies onwards.
For the rural areas of Nepal, earthquake resistant technologies are needed to be propagated and capacity building in rural level is urgent so as to assure the performance local structures. As majority share of housing stock is non-engineered to poorly engineered, immediate strengthening frameworks are to be deployed immediately for reducing the vulnerability of structures. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.
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First Online: 29 March Background On 25 April a strong earthquake of M W 7. Soft storey During the field study performed immediately after the Gorkha earthquake, it is observed that soft storey failure in RC buildings is one of the most common causes of collapse, among with other type of structural deficiencies. The common type of building framing is moment resisting with monolithic slab cast in beams and columns.
The foundation type usually adheres as isolated footing in residential level and combined mat and pile foundation for most of the high rise apartment buildings. Similarly, in case of high rise constructions, the ground floor are left open for parking or sometimes basement parking is provided without infill walls Fig. Such practices have led the soft storey failure during earthquake in most of the damaged RC buildings Fig. Due to lack of infill wall on ground floor, the increased flexibility has significantly triggered the increased displacement in ground floor thus majority of the cracks or minor to severe damages were found to be concentrated therein during reconnaissance.
Open image in new window. The intense damage was significantly governed by the horizontal re-bars stirrups. Reinforcement in infill walls were not found to be provided in residential constructions with exception to some apartments. Due to lack of reinforced walls in most of the brick kiln chimneys, almost all chimneys suffered from partial to complete collapse in Kathmandu valley [ 12 ]. More significantly, the connection between the structural components was also found to be poor. In some cases, it was observed that people preferred welding for connection of vertical reinforcements rather than anchoring thus failures were observed in those columns Fig.
The larger gap of stirrups was noticed to be significantly contributing in the failure of columns Fig. Moreover, the structural damage and building collapse was found to be more governed by too less, smaller diameter and tying the vertical re-bars outwardly Fig. Similarly, the beam column connection and layout of the reinforcement was found to be random leading to minor to serious damages.
The workmanship defect along with the connection deficiencies were widely observed Fig. In order to cover up maximum area, upper stories are constructed more in balconies. In such practices, floating columns from first storey were commonly observed in residential construction within as well as outside Kathmandu valley Fig.
The floating columns are frequently used for increasing the built up area from upper stories Fig. Due to lack of continuous load path during earthquakes, the lateral forces are not effectively transferred to the foundation. The overturning forces developed lead to buckle the columns of ground floor and subsequent damage was noticed in some buildings Fig. Due to poor mechanism of construction monitoring, many of the urban constructions were noticed to be haphazardly increasing the housing size beyond structural system Fig. Segregation and bleeding were commonly observed in the damaged buildings.
Quality of fine and coarse aggregates, water cement ratio significantly affect the strength of concrete, however in Nepal water cement ratio is usually exceeded for achieving workability compromising strength of concrete Fig. In most of the damaged houses, corrosion of re-bars was recurrently visible.
Use of rounded aggregates and poor binding was also exposed in some buildings outside Kathmandu valley Fig. Rounded aggregates have led in poor stiffness and improper binding with concrete causing the out of plane failure. Building asymmetry in terms of plan as well as elevation is more common in Nepal.
Due to unavailability of spaces for construction, slender structures are also frequent in urban neighborhoods Fig. Nepal building codes restrict the height to breadth and length to breadth ratio less than 3 [ 2 ], though these regulations are not properly enforced and monitored even in the only one metropolitan city of Nepal Fig. Due to lack of construction monitoring system, owners add stories themselves hiring local contractors.
In addition to slender structures, asymmetrical structures constructed following the shape of the land plot are more common in Nepal and such structures sustained heavy damage during Gorkha earthquake Fig. In the outskirts of Kathmandu valley, the localized damages are more intense. Previously those areas used to be the villages or suburbs so that only mandatory rules of thumbs NBC, or experience of the local level contractors were effective as construction guideline.
However due to lack of monitoring, owners themselves constructed some more stories without design approval, at the meantime such buildings were observed to be facing severe damages or even collapse. Before implementation of MRT, 0. Later, with the commercialization of areas, houses with the same column size were made up to seven stories.
This was the significant cause for damage in most of buildings in Nepal during Gorkha earthquake. In addition to this, several houses were found to be constructed with combination of load bearing walls and columns Fig. In some sites of Kathmandu valley, some of the construction flaws like joining masonry as well as RC buildings were observed Fig. In some locations of Kathmandu valley, traditional masonry houses were found to be added with reinforced concrete construction in third or four storey Fig.
Many of the buildings in Kathmandu are constructed with higher load concentration in upper stories and reducing the column size while constructing upper stories Fig. Water tanks were found to be installed in every RC building in Nepal for gravity distribution in taps, though the weight of water tank was found to be nevertheless accounted during structural analysis and design before construction even if it was obvious to install.
At least one to five water tanks of varying capacity were found to be installed during field reconnaissance Fig. Due to continuation of single column for water tank and construction of short column, some of the buildings sustained damages in those structures Fig. Also in some houses, the load of telecommunication tower was found to be established without any structural analysis and design. Due to close proximity of buildings in Kathmandu valley and other affected parts of Nepal, pounding solely or with several combinations with pounding has led moderate to severe damages in building Fig.
Due to wider variation in dynamic properties of adjoined buildings and unequal storey height, the pounding is observed intense in some areas where building proximity is common and adjoining buildings were constructed at different time with wider variation in construction materials, technology and workmanship. The major urban and sub-urban centers in Kathmandu valley have high built up area to total land plot, so almost all portion of land is covered by the structural system.
In Nepalese RC construction practice, the infill walls are not accounted during design and analysis phase rather such walls are provided haphazardly through the knowledge of contractors or sometimes masons. The on-site assembly of precut, panelized, and prefabricated buildings and construction of temporary buildings are included in this subsector. Part or all of the production work for which the establishments in this subsector have responsibility may be subcontracted to other construction establishments—usually specialty trade contractors. This section provides information relating to employment in construction of buildings.
These data are obtained from employer or establishment surveys. The following tables present an overview of the industry including the number of jobs, data for occupations common to the industry, and projections of occupational employment change. Employment, all employees seasonally adjusted. Employment, production and nonsupervisory employees. Footnotes p Preliminary.
Source: Current Employment Statistics.
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