Corticofugal Modulation of Sensory Information
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Axonal conduction velocities were analysed in relation to the site and type of their afferent input. Discharges evoked in SCT axons by electrical and natural stimulation were tested for inhibition from other cutaneous nerves both by electrical and natural stimulation. Inhibition was most easily elicited from the homologous limb and least easily from the heterologous contralateral limb. Conditioning curves of segmental inhibition were plotted and were consistent with a pre-synaptic mechanism. In two spinalized decerebrate cats, only homosegmental inhibition was found.
For both types of stimulation cathodal currents were most effective. Those areas of cortex eliciting most inhibition at a given current strength corresponded with the contralateral forelimb sensory receiving areas S. I and S. Weaker inhibition was elicited from the ipsilateral cortex. Conditioning curves of corticofugal inhibition were plotted. The results of the previous sections are discussed in relation to present knowledge of the ascending sensory pathways and the problems they raise. Theories concerning the function of the spinocervical tract are discussed and it is postulated that the spinocervical tract may be concerned in the control of certain types of movement.
Search ERA. Ultimately, these findings shed light on how information contained in two primary output layers of the ACtx can be routed to the rest of the brain.
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The L6 CT neurons propagate information that is sparse and more selective, but their anatomy places them in a position to modulate information both en route to the thalamus through the TRN , but also locally through local networks of GABAergic FS interneurons. Indeed, previous work has suggested that these circuits may provide a behaviorally-relevant gating mechanism that can act on thalamic inputs to ACtx Yu et al. Such circuitry also allows for rapid modulation of response gain and has led to speculation that L6 CT circuits play a crucial role in dynamically regulating stimulus salience according to internal state variables such as anticipation and attention Jaramillo and Zador, ; Buran et al.
Thanks in part to their elaborate dendritic structure, L5 CF neurons are able to integrate input from multiple ACtx layers and broadcast a dense, non-linear signal to multiple sub-cortical auditory stations.
- Cortical modulation of sensory flow during active touch in the rat whisker system.
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CF neurons have been implicated in guiding sub-cortical reorganization of behaviorally relevant sounds Gao and Suga, , enabling experience-dependent learning Bajo et al. Ascending sensory pathways are classically characterized as two streams: a lemniscal system for higher fidelity propagation of detailed stimulus information and a non-lemniscal system that captures contextual sensory influences and internal state variables Hu, ; Lee, Here we show that a division of labor between two parallel, complementary streams is maintained in the corticofugal pathway, highlighting a unifying theme in the organization of central sensory pathways.
All procedures were approved by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Animal Care and Use Committee and followed the guidelines established by the National Institute of Health for the care and use of laboratory animals. This study is based on data from 22 mice aged 6—8 weeks, both male and female. A homoeothermic blanket system Fine Science Tools was used to maintain core body temperature at approximately For viral delivery to the ACtx, an incision was made to the right side of the scalp to expose the skull around the caudal end of the temporal ridge.
The temporalis muscle was then retracted and two burr holes approximately 0. A motorized stereotaxic injection system Stoelting Co. Following the injection, the surgical area was sutured shut, antibiotic ointment was applied to the wound margin, and an analgesic was administered Buprenex, 0. For intersectional anatomy experiments described in Figure 1 , CAV2-Cre was injected into the IC via a small craniotomy atop the inferior colliculus 0. Following injections, the craniotomy was filled with antibiotic ointment Bacitracin and sealed with UV-cured cement.
Neurophysiology experiments began 3—4 weeks following virus injection. Mice were brought to a surgical plane of anesthesia, using the same protocol for anesthesia and body temperature control described above. The dorsal surface of the skull was exposed, and the periosteum was removed. For L5 CF phototagging, a small craniotomy 0. For mice undergoing L6 CT phototagging, a small craniotomy 0.
Once dry, the cement surrounding the fiber implant was painted black with nail polish to prevent light from escaping. Mice recovered in a warmed chamber and were housed individually. Stimuli were presented via a free-field electrostatic speaker Tucker-Davis Technologies facing the left contralateral ear. Collimated blue light nm was generated by a diode laser Omicron, LuxX and delivered to the brain via an implanted multimode optic fiber coupled to the optical patch cable by a ceramic mating sleeve.
Laser power through the optic fiber assembly was calibrated prior to implantation with a photodetector Thorlabs.