The Digital Songstream: Mastering the World of Digital Music
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Brad Hill is a master musician and computer expert. He has worked in the online field since , and is regarded as a preeminent advocate of the online experience. As a bestselling author of several books and columns, Hill reaches a global audience of consumers who rely on his writings to help determine their Internet destination and home technology choices.
This is the ultimate guide to the new digital world of music.
Music on deaf ears : musical meaning, ideology, education /
Cutting through myths, it offers a step-by-step introduction to what's possible for performers, composers, and listeners-addressing legal and ethical issues as well as the nuts and bolts of what equipment to buy and what services are available. Written in a friendly, easy-to-understand way, this book will be the first and only reference needed for anyone wishing to enter the world of computer music. Read more Read less. Review "This guide offers an excellent starting point for those new to the world of MP3s: it provides thorough overviews of a number of the services available online, rates the desktop players available for download, and demystifies the vast selection of Internet radio stations.
No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. This counterargument is regarded as one of the earliest explicit articulations of the idea of literary property of an absolute right generated by authorship, which would eventually serve as the cornerstone of an entire moral and economic system of print.
Each rested on highly contentious grounds, and neither was intrinsically credible. Recapitulating, it is interesting to see that the illegal printing of books and therefore the industry itself was initially depicted as piratical or even as an institutionalized group of bandits comparable to Alexander that robs the whole world. They were not characterized as a threat comparable with a small pirate, like a pirate brewer would be, but with Alexander and therefore as a threat to culture in general.
The pirate or superlative characterization Alexander as a threat to culture in general was born.
In a reaction to this birth of piracy, authorial property was also articulated for the first time. Comparing the ownership of authorship with that of estate was a new and inventive metaphor at that time. One that had lasting consequences, as it is still maintained as the metaphor for intellectual property today. However, the notion of piracy survived.
The struggles of the book trade were never forgotten and scholars, the book trade itself, and others made the term their own and used it to point at dishonest practices. Therefore, from then on piracy was not used only to refer to illegal printing but also to a broad range of practices in medicine, engineering, and mechanics. It became an everyday concept that was being referred to in poetry, newspapers and essays throughout early eighteenth century London.
Instead of characterizing piracy in the book trade the illegal printing of seditious content as something that was solely a bad thing for society, it is important to acknowledge here that this kind of piracy at that time also helped in shaping a public sphere and certain key concepts of the Enlightenment. Because of illegal reprinting, books were distributed beyond the common metropolises and were translated in all kind of languages. The illegal re printing also had an impact on the quality and price of books, because pirates reprinted the most profitable works in smaller formats and for far cheaper prices, which created a certain casualness of reading, making books portable and disposable Johns, Because pirates generally sought to reproduce works, instead of publishing new works, illegal reprinting, or piracy, also raised questions of accuracy and authenticity for the first time.
Reprinters did not only copy works, but also improved them, by adding extra material or comments. Piracy therefore also boosted certain new cultures and habits, like for example completeness, authenticity and accurateness.
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The concept of piracy thus also helped in shaping certain key aspects of the Enlightenment. As the importance of the book trade grew in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the debates about authorship and piracy continued, establishing the terms, their self-evidence, and the involved assumptions more and more. Eventually these emerging concepts were an important influence in the formation of copyright, as will be shown in the next chapter. The main issue in this debate is the sustainability of copyright in its present form.
These discussions about the sustainability of copyright take place all over the world. Online on blogs and websites, in print in books, newspapers and magazines, and in public places.
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An example of such a public debate was the Dutch Downloaddebat downloading debate , that took place in Amsterdam in May During this sold-out evening, lectures were being held by digital rights organizations, but also by anti-piracy programs, and it was concluded with a debate with representatives of all the major Dutch political parties.
These debates about the current state of copyright are important for the way music piracy is understood. As was already stated in the first chapter, the concepts piracy and copyright are closely related to each other. Not only did the notion of piracy spark the first explicit articulation of a sense of literary property, but the possibility to characterize piracy as a profound problem is largely made possible by the explicit articulation of the characteristics of intellectual property in copyright law.
Next to being closely related to the concept of music piracy, copyright is also an important factor in understanding how the music industry functions. The preservation of copyright might even be considered one of the most important factors in maintaining a music industry. In this chapter copyright and its relationship with piracy and the music industry is being analyzed. As will be made clear by this analysis, the music industry is largely dependent on the properties of copyright. Not only for their daily activities selling music as products but also for their anti-piracy rhetoric which is clearly based on the assumptions on which copyright was established.
Because of this importance, this section asks how copyright came into existence and how it developed since then.
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In answering these questions, this chapter does not intend to give a description of the complete history of copyright and all its global modifications over the years. Instead, in line with the previously discussed archaeological research method, a special focus on the rhetoric that helped to establish copyright is presented and it is asked how this rhetoric has evolved since then. In the encompassing work Copyright Law , Joyce states that copyright evolves, not due to new technologies, but due to new conditions that are created by these technologies.
A focus on the rhetoric concerning these changing relationships therefore can give insight in how the discourse has influenced these political and ideological considerations in history. An important element in copyright and in the discussions about music piracy is authorship. Before and in the early modern period the notion of the author as a creating genius was not common. It begins appearing only from the beginning of the eighteenth century. What happened between the early modern period and today, that caused this transformation in the understanding of the author?
When analyzing the rhetoric of copyright it appears that copyright can be regarded as a solid foundation, just as it can be regarded as a political construction. In her doctoral dissertation, the American Debora J. What are these assumptions she refers to, and what history is ignored? The most important assumption that Halbert discusses, is the metaphor that was and still is used when discussing copyright.
Metaphors are used to make unfamiliar things familiar and create a conceptual framework to get a better understanding of abstract concepts. In the early discourse on copyright several metaphors were tested. Eventually, the metaphor that was used, made famous and that still is used today was based on a link between tangible and intangible property.
Indeed, the English Revolution not only formed an inducement for discussions about the fate of the uncoordinated booksellers, but also provided an opening for the emergence of a debate on liberty and property.
In this debate the work of the English philosopher and Enlightenment thinker John Locke was very influential. Eventually his ideas about tangible property proved to be a critical aspect in the emerging discourse on intangible, proprietary authorship. By using this metaphor, the author as an owner of ideas could emerge. Just as one could own estate, one could also own ideas. Although it seems that this metaphor was especially beneficial to the author, it was especially beneficial for others besides him too. Those who were particularly beneficial with this metaphor were the earlier mentioned Stationers.
To explain why, one has to go back to the circumstances after the English Revolution.
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As was explicated in the first chapter, one of the primary goals of the new laws, that were designed after the English Revolution, was to regulate the book trade, and not to protect something that came to be defined as copyright. The Stationers had a monopoly on the book market. They largely determined what was being published and were partly held responsible for the outbreak of violence during the English Revolution. The reasoning for this was, that discord lead to increased sales and was beneficial for the book trade Johns, As was insinuated with this reasoning, the goal of the book trade was to create as much discord as possible, in order to maximize profits.
A regulation of the book trade could reduce the power of the Stationers and by doing so could bring back order into society. To accomplish this, new laws were needed.
To establish this, the Statute of Anne which was enacted in among others reduced the copyright term from being perpetual to 14 years. The copyright of already published materials was extended with 21 years, but with this proposal, booksellers had the prospect of their monopoly tumbling Lessig, In a reaction to this foresight, they therefore began developing arguments to justify their continued control.